Broward County home county of Fort Lauderdale and Miami-Dade County both have four pari-mutuel facilities that each offer electronic gaming machines, but no table games.
From July 1, through June 30, the gaming machines at Magic City returned There are two casino boats in Georgia which both sail three miles out into international waters where casino gambling is permitted.
Idaho has six Indian casinos that offer electronic pull-tab machines and other video games. The terms of the compact between the tribes and the state do not require any minimum payback percentage that the gaming machines must return to the public.
These figures reflect the total percentages returned by each casino for all of their electronic machines. These figures reflect the average percentage returned by each casino for all of their electronic machines including slot machines, video poker, video keno, etc.
These figures reflect the total percentages returned by each riverboat casino or pari-mutuel facility for all of its electronic machines including: In April the Kansas legislature authorized local referendums to allow state-run casinos in four counties.
There are also five Indian casinos in Kansas and they are not required to release information on their slot machine payback percentages.
Louisiana gaming statistics are not broken down by individual properties. Rather, they are classified by region: The Lake Charles casinos include: New Orleans area casinos are: The best returns for each category are highlighted in bold print and you can see that the Baton Rouge area casinos offered the best returns in most categories.
Maine has two racetrack casinos racinos that offer electronic gaming machines, as well as live table games. Maryland has five casinos that are allowed to offer electronic gaming machines, as well as live table games.
However, Ocean Downs has no table games. No public information is available about the actual payback percentages on gaming machines in Maryland.
Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick signed a bill in late that legalized casinos. The law allows three casinos, in three different geographic regions, plus one slot parlor.
The slot parlor, Plainridge Park Casino, a harness racing track located about 40 miles southwest of Boston, opened June 24, The final license for Region C Southeastern Massachusetts had not yet been awarded as of late Additionally, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe is planning to build a destination resort casino near Taunton.
That facility, First Light Casino, was expected to open by late However, the project has been hampered by lawsuits which might stop it from being completed.
From July 1, through June 30, , the gaming machines at Plainridge Park returned There are 17 Indian casinos in Michigan and the tribes are not required to release information on their slot machine payback percentages.
There are also three privately owned casinos in Detroit, but their slot payback information is not made available to the public. All Minnesota casinos are located on Indian reservations and under a compact reached with the state the only table games permitted are card games such as blackjack and poker.
Additionally, the only kind of slot machines allowed are the electronic video variety. Therefore, you will not find any mechanical slots that have traditional reels — only video screens.
According to the terms of the compact between the state and the tribes, however, the minimum and maximum payouts are regulated as follows: Each tribe is free to set its machines to pay back anywhere within those limits and the tribes do not not release any information regarding their slot machine percentage paybacks.
The Mississippi Gaming Commission does not break down its slot statistics by individual properties. Rather, they are classified by region.
The North region includes Tunica, Greenville and Lula. The Central region includes Vicksburg and Natchez. The best returns for each category are highlighted in bold print and you can see that all of the gaming areas offer rather similar returns on their machines.
As the coin was inserted into the machine it could go one of two routes, either direct into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner, or alternatively it would go into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.
The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums.
A "look up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler.
This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined.
If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous, if nearly empty, less so thus giving good control of the odds. The video slot machine is a more recent innovation, with no moving parts at all — instead a graphical representation of one appears on screen.
In addition, because there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, most display five reels rather than three.
This greatly expands the number of possibilities: As there are so many combinations given by five reels, the manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so.
Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols, earning a more frequent payout, will appear many times.
Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines", so rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to bottom right, or any of the other patterns specified by the manufacturer.
As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take any or all of the possible lines on offer — the long-term return to player will be the same.
The difference for the player is that the more lines he plays the more likely he is to get paid on a given spin — though of course he is betting more in the first place.
The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: All modern machines are designed using pseudo random number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second.
As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result. This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played.
A fraction of a second earlier or later, and the result would be different. Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.
Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played, so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if they know how the machine was programmed.
This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation.
The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money played to the "house" the operator of the slot machine , while returning the rest to the players during play.
Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.
Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software.
Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.
Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them—primarily this applies to online casinos—or through studies by independent gambling authorities.
The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical.
For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.
Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive.
As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.
The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply.
He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.
The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from 1: Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout.
The one midsize payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.
In contrast the The highest payout of 2, The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several midsize payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.
He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite the fact that they are confidential, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website.
They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e.
The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired. The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.
Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.
Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino.
The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.
One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.
Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps.
The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity.
Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.
However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.
In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.
A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes.
After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.
Often machines are linked together in a way that allows a group of machines to offer a particularly large prize, or "jackpot".
Each slot machine in the group contributes a small amount to this progressive jackpot , awarded to a player who gets, for example, a royal flush on a video poker machine or a specific combination of symbols on a regular or nine-line slot machine.
The amount paid for the progressive jackpot is usually far higher than any single slot machine could pay on its own. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos.
In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot. The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright.
Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools.
Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire.
The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.
This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.
Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors.
These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.
Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw". Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted.
Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments.
Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.
In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Illinois , Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.
Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.
Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission.
In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game".
A player redeems his winnings by pressing a button to print a ticket, which the bartender redeems for cash.
The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.
Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited.
The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date.
For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. Native American casinos located in reservations are not permitted to have slot machines unless the tribe first reaches a pact with the state in which it is located per Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.
Typically, a pact entitles the state to receive a fraction of the gross revenue from slot machines. Some states have restrictions on the type called "class" of slot machines that can be used in a casino or other gaming area.
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act establishes three classes of games with a different regulatory scheme for each: Class I gaming is defined as 1 traditional Indian gaming, which may be part of tribal ceremonies and celebrations, and 2 social gaming for minimal prizes.
Class II gaming is defined as the game of chance commonly known as bingo whether or not electronic, computer, or other technological aids are used in connection therewith and, if played in the same location as the bingo , pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instant bingo, and other games similar to bingo.
Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games , that is, games that are played exclusively against other players rather than against the house or a player acting as a bank.
The Act specifically excludes slot machines or electronic facsimiles of any game of chance from the definition of class II games.
Tribes retain their authority to conduct, license, and regulate class II gaming, provided it complies with the Act - including the requirement that the Tribal government adopt a gaming ordinance approved by the National Indian Gaming Commission NIGC.
Tribal governments are the primary entity responsible for regulating class II gaming on its lands. Only Hawaii and Utah continue to prohibit all types of gaming.
The definition of class III gaming is broad. It includes all forms of gaming that are neither class I nor II. Games commonly played at casinos , such as slot machines , blackjack , craps , and roulette , clearly fall in the class III category, as well as wagering games and electronic facsimiles of any game of chance.
Generally, class III is often referred to as casino-style gaming. The regulatory scheme for class III gaming is more complex than a casual reading of the statute might suggest.
Although Congress clearly intended regulatory issues to be addressed in Tribal-State compacts , it left a number of key functions in federal hands, including approval authority over compacts, management contracts, and Tribal gaming ordinances.
Congress also vested the Commission with broad authority to issue regulations in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. Many American casinos offer free memberships in "slot clubs", which return a fraction of the amount of money that is bet in the form of comps complimentary food, drinks, hotel rooms, or merchandise , or sometimes as cash or a promise to pay cash at a later date.
The slot machine with 3 reels is a classical variant that is often used in the ground gaming establishments. Currently, these gaming devices are gradually sliding and here come contemporary models instead of them.
They are very alluring for keen players because of their numerical coefficients, free spins, and jackpots, which is regarded as accumulative. The slot machine with 7 reels is accessible only in the exclusive online surroundings but they continue to gain an obvious favorite in the circle of players as well.
They vary from others as they do not have bonus rounds and there is also a minimum number of lines up to 10 but they allow gamers to attain minor payments several times in a row.
The slot machine with 9 reels is not very common but still, it attracts gamblers with its creative design and captivating bonus regimes. The lines are set up in a vertical, horizontal and diagonal way.
They are very popular due to rapid and progressive jackpots. These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government.
Thus no two provincial regulatory or operational regimes are the same. The 10 provinces all have gaming departments and slot machine play is available in venues across all.
Part of the revenues go to the local government which in turn gives a percentage to the federal government. Choice of slots available is a province by province negotiation with the local Gaming Department.
Individual territories have such small populations that there are no dedicated departments or land based facilities to play.
Only 12 First Nation casinos exist scattered over five provinces. The Assembly of First Nations view jurisdiction over gaming on First Nation land as part of their constitutional rights protected by section 35 1 of the Constitution Act, All provinces have dedicated problem gambling help lines and research, and the territories have health and social service support for individuals with gambling problems.
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